The water frame is the name given to thespinning frame, when water power was used to drive it. Both are credited to Richard Arkwright who patented the technology in 1768. It was based on an invention by Thomas Highs and the patent was later overturned. John Kay, a clock maker and mechanic who helped Highs build the spinning frame, sold the design to Arkwright. Later, Arkwright make the system work and spread over this technology. The water frame is originated from the use of a water wheel to drive a number of spinning frames. The water wheel provided more power to the spinning frame than human operators, reducing the amount of human labor needed and increase the spindle count. The water frame could be assembled with hundreds of spinning heads in a single building and was easy to operate. However, the water frame depend heavelly on the wheather. Measures had to be taken to prevent damage in flood conditions, while long periods of dry weather could give a shortage and during winter, freezing could be a problem. Much of the water for Richard Arkwright's wheels came from a sough draining a lead mines, which gave an almost constant supply that was also slightly warm.
The spinning jenny is a multi-spool spinning wheel. It was invented c. 1764 by James Hargreaves in Stanhill, near Blackburn, Lancashire in the northwest of England. The device dramatically reduced the amount of work needed to produce yarn, with a single worker able to work eight or more spools at once. This eventually turned into eighty. The machine used eight spindles onto which the thread was spun from a corresponding set of rovings. By turning a single wheel, the operator could now spin eight threads at once. Later, improvements were made that enabled the number to be increased to eighty. The thread that the machine produced was coarse and lacked strength, making it suitable only for the filling of weft, the threads woven across the warp. About 20,000 spinning jenny were used in Britain from 1700s-1800s.
In 1775 Samuel Crompton produced his Spinning Mule, so called because it was a hybrid that combined features of two earlier inventions (like a mule is the cross of a horse and a donkey), the Spinning Jenny and the Water Frame. The mule produced a strong, fine and soft yarn which could be used in all kinds of textiles, but was particularly suited to the production of muslins. The Spinning Mule could also be driven by the new steam engines that were being produced by James Watt and Matthew Boulton. A large number of factory owners purchased Crompton's mules.
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. Steam engine is very popular during the Industrial Revolution. It was use in many factories and was very efficient. The efficiency of the steam engine reduced the need of worker greatly. However, the original design of the steam engine by Thomas Newcomen weren't as efficient as the engines used during the Industrial Revolution. James Watt and Matthew Boulton improved the steam engine. The "new" steam engine cooled the used steam in a condenser separate from the main cylinder. Watt and Boulton's steam engine were mainly used in draining mines. It was four times powerful than Newcomen's original design
Which main topic does this artifact relate to? In what way? This artifact is about the machines that was used in the factories during the 19th Century.
Why did you choose this artifact, and how much time did you spend on creating the artifact?I choose machinery as my topic is because I have a vague idea of the machines that was used in the factories, and I want to learn about it. I spend approximately 2 hours on this artifact.
What understanding have you gained from the creation process of this artifact? I learned about different kinds of machines and their principle and usage.
Does this artifact reflect your best work and ideas? Why or why not? Yes, I have research a lot about these machines.
Any additional comment? None
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